Westminster Larger Catechism
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The General Assembly having exactly
examined and seriously considered the Larger Catechism, agreed upon by the
Assembly of the Divines sitting at Westminster, with assistance of Commissioners
from this Kirk [Church], copies thereof being printed, and sent to the
Presbyteries, for the more exact trial thereof; and public intimation being
frequently made in this Assembly, that every one that had any doubts or
objections upon it might put them in; do find, upon due examination therefore,
that the said Catechism is agreeable to the word of God, and in nothing
contrary to the received doctrine, worship, discipline, and government of this Kirk
[Church]; a necessary part of the intended uniformity in religion, and a rich
treasure for increasing knowledge among the people of God: and therefore the
Assembly, as they bless the Lord that so excellent a Catechism is prepared, so
they approve the same, as a part of uniformity; agreeing, for their part, that
it be a common Catechism for the three kingdoms, and a Directory for
catechizing such as have made some proficiency in the knowledge of the grounds
Q. 1 What is the chief and
highest end of man?
A. Man's chief and highest end is to glorify
God, and fully to enjoy him forever.
Q. 2 How doth it appear that
there is a God?
A. The very light of nature in man, and the
works of God, declare plainly that there is a God; but his word and Spirit only do sufficiently and effectually reveal
him unto men for their salvation.
Q. 3 What is the Word of God?
A. The holy Scriptures of the Old and New
Testament are the Word of God, the
only rule of faith and obedience.
Q. 4 How doth it appear that
the Scriptures are of the Word of God?
A. The Scriptures manifest themselves to be
the Word of God, by their majesty and
purity; by the consent of all the parts, and the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God; by their light and power to convince and convert sinners, to comfort
and build up believers unto salvation:
but the Spirit of God bearing witness by and with the Scriptures in the heart
of man, is alone able fully to persuade it that they are the very word of God.
Q. 5 What do the Scriptures
A. The Scriptures principally teach, what
man is to believe concerning God, and what duty God requires of man.
WHAT MAN OUGHT TO BELIEVE CONCERNING GOD.
Q. 6 What do the Scriptures
make known of God?
A. The Scriptures make known what God is, the persons in the Godhead,
his decrees, and the execution
of his decrees.
Q. 7 What is God?
A. God is a Spirit, in and of himself infinite in being, glory, blessedness, and perfection; all-sufficient, eternal, unchangeable, incomprehensible,
every where present, almighty, knowing all things,
most wise, most holy, most just, most merciful and
gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth.
Q. 8 Are there more Gods than
A. There is but one only, the living and
Q. 9 How many persons are there
in the Godhead?
A. There be three persons in the Godhead,
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one true, eternal
God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory; although distinguished by
their personal properties.
Q. 10 What are the personal
properties of the three persons in the Godhead?
A. It is proper to the Father to beget the
Son, and to the Son to be begotten of the Father, and to the Holy Ghost to proceed from the Father and the Son from all
Q. 11 How doth it appear that the
Son and the Holy Ghost are God equal with the Father?
A. The Scriptures manifest that the Son and
the Holy Ghost are God equal with the Father, ascribing unto them such names, attributes, works, and worship as are proper to
Q. 12 What are the decrees of
A. God's decrees are the wise, free, and
holy acts of the counsel of his will,
whereby, from all eternity, he hath, for his own glory, unchangeably
foreordained whatsoever comes to pass in time, especially concerning angels and men.
Q. 13 What hath God especially
decreed concerning angels and men?
A. God, by an eternal and immutable decree,
out of his mere love, for the praise of his glorious grace, to be manifested in
due time, hath elected some angels to glory; and in Christ hath chosen some men to eternal life, and the means
thereof: and also, according to his sovereign power, and the unsearchable
counsel of his own will, (whereby he extendeth or withholdeth favor as he
pleaseth,) hath passed by and foreordained the rest to dishonor and wrath, to
be for their sin inflicted, to the praise of the glory of his justice.
Q. 14 How doth God execute his
A. God executeth his decrees in the works of
creation and providence, according to his infallible foreknowledge, and the
free and immutable counsel of his own will.
Q. 15 What is the work of
A. The work of creation is that wherein God
did in the beginning, by the word of his power, make of nothing the world, and
all things therein, for himself, within the space of six days, and all very
Q. 16 How did God create angels?
A. God created all the angels spirits , immortal, holy, excelling in
knowledge, mighty in power, to execute his commandments, and to praise his name, yet subject to change
Q. 17 How did God create man?
A. After God had made all other creatures,
he created man male and female;
formed the body of the man of the dust of the ground, and the woman of the rib of the man, endued them with living, reasonable, and immortal souls; made them after his own image, in
and holiness; having the law of
God written in their hearts,
and power to fulfill it, and dominion over
the creatures; yet subject to
Q. 18 What are God's works of
A. God's works of providence are his most
holy, wise, and powerful
preservingand governing all his creatures; ordering them, and all their actions, to his own glory.
Q. 19 What is God's providence
towards the angels?
A. God by his providence permitted some of
the angels, willfully and irrecoverably, to fall into sin and damnation, limiting and ordering that, and all their sins, to his own glory; and established the rest in holiness and happiness; employing them all, at
his pleasure, in the administrations of his power, mercy, and justice.
Q. 20 What was the providence of
God toward man in the estate in which he was created?
A. The providence of God toward man in the
estate in which he was created, was the placing him in paradise, appointing him
to dress it, giving him liberty to eat of the fruit of the earth; putting the creatures under his dominion, and ordaining marriage for his help; affording him communion with himself; instituting the sabbath;
entering into a covenant of life with him, upon condition of personal, perfect,
and perpetual obedience, of which the tree
of life was a pledge; and forbidding to
eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, upon the pain of death.
Q. 21 Did man continue in that
estate wherein God at first created him?
A. Our first parents being left to the
freedom of their own will, through the temptation of Satan, transgressed the
commandment of God in eating the forbidden fruit; and thereby fell from the
estate of innocency wherein they were created
Q. 22 Did all mankind fall in
that first transgression?
A. The covenant being made with Adam as a
public person, not for himself only, but for his posterity, all mankind
descending from him by ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him in that first transgression.
Q. 23 Into what estate did the
fall bring mankind?
A. The fall brought mankind into an estate
of sin and misery.
Q. 24 What is sin?
A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or
transgression of, any law of God, given as a rule to the reasonable creature.
Q. 25 Wherein consisteth the
sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?
A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto
man fell, consisteth in the guilt of Adam's first sin, the want of that righteousness wherein he was created, and the
corruption of his nature, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made
opposite unto all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil,
and that continually; which is commonly
called original sin, and from which do proceed all actual
Q. 26 How is original sin
conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity?
A. Original sin is conveyed from our first
parents unto their posterity by natural generation, so as all that proceed from
them in that way are conceived and born in sin.
Q. 27 What misery did the fall
bring upon mankind?
A. The fall brought upon mankind the loss of
communion with God, his displeasure
and curse; so as we are by nature children of wrath, bond slaves to Satan,
and justly liable to all punishments in this world, and that which is to come.
Q. 28 What are the punishments of
sin in this world?
A. The punishments of sin in this world are
either inward, as blindness of mind, a
reprobate sense, strong
delusions, hardness of
heart, horror of conscience,
and vile affections; or outward, as
the curse of God upon the creatures of our sakes, and all other evils that befall us in our bodies, names, estates,
relations, and employments;
together with death itself.
Q. 29 What are the punishments of
sin in the world to come?
A. The punishments of sin in the world to
come, are everlasting separation from the comfortable presence of God, and most
grievous torments in soul and body, without intermission, in hell-fire forever.
Q. 30 Doth God leave all mankind
to perish in the estate of sin and misery?
A. God doth not leave all men to perish in
the estate of sin and misery,
into which they fell by the breach of the first covenant, commonly called the covenant
of works; but of his mere
love and mercy delivereth his elect out of it, and bringeth them into an estate
of salvation by the second covenant, commonly called the covenant of grace.
Q. 31 With whom was the covenant
of grace made?
A. The covenant of grace was made with
Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed.
Q. 32 How is the grace of God
manifested in the second covenant?
A. The grace of God is manifested in the
second covenant, in that he freely provideth and offereth to sinners a
Mediator, and life and
salvation by him; and requiring
faith as the condition to interest them in him, promiseth and giveth his Holy Spirit to all his elect, to work in them that faith, with all other saving graces;
and to enable them unto all holy obedience, as the evidence of the truth of their faith and thankfulness to God,
and as the way which he hath appointed them to salvation.
Q. 33 Was the covenant of grace
always administered after one and the same manner?
A. The covenant of grace was not always
administered after the same manner, but the administrations of it under the Old
Testament were different from those under the New.
Q. 34 How was the covenant of
grace administered under the Old Testament?
A. The covenant of grace was administered
under the Old Testament, by promises,
prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the passover, and other types and ordinances, which did all fore-signify Christ then
to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up the elect in faith in
the promised Messiah, by whom they then
had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation.
Q. 35 How is the covenant of
grace administered under the New Testament?
A. Under the New Testament, when Christ the
substance was exhibited, the same covenant of grace was and still is to be
administered in the preaching of the Word, and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper;
in which grace and salvation are held forth in more fulness, evidence, and
efficacy, to all nations.
Q. 36 Who is the Mediator of the
covenant of grace?
A. The only Mediator of the covenant of
grace is the Lord Jesus Christ,
who, being the eternal Son of God, of one substance and equal with the Father, in the fulness of time became man, and so was and continues to be God and man, in two entire distinct
natures, and one person, forever.
Q. 37 How did Christ, being the
Son of God, become man?
A. Christ the Son of God became man, by
taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable soul, being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost in the womb of the
virgin Mary, of her substance, and born of her, yet without sin.
Q. 38 Why was it requisite that
the Mediator should be God?
A. It was requisite that the Mediator should
be God, that he might sustain and keep the human nature from sinking under the
infinite wrath of God, and the power of death, give worth and efficacy to his sufferings, obedience, and
intercession; and to satisfy
God's justice, procure his
favour, purchase a peculiar people,
give his Spirit to them, conquer all
their enemies, and bring them
to everlasting salvation.
Q. 39 Why was it requisite that
the Mediator should be man?
A. It was requisite that the Mediator should
be man, that he might advance our nature, perform obedience to the law,
suffer and make intercession for us in our nature, have a fellow-feeling of our infirmities; that we might receive the adoption of sons, and have comfort and access with boldness unto the throne of grace.
Q. 40 Why was it requisite that
the Mediator should be God and man in one person?
A. It was requisite that the Mediator, who
was to reconcile God and man, should himself be both God and man, and this in
one person, that the proper works of each nature might be accepted of God for
us, and relied on by us as the works of the whole person.
Q. 41 Why was our Mediator called
A. Our Mediator was called Jesus, because he
saveth his people from their sins
Q. 42 Why was our Mediator called
A. Our Mediator was called Christ, because
he was anointed with the Holy Ghost above measure, and so set apart, and fully furnished with all authority and ability, to execute the offices of prophet, priest, and king of his
church, in the estate both of his humiliation and exaltation.
Q. 43 How doth Christ execute the
office of a prophet?
A. Christ executeth the office of a prophet,
in his revealing to the church,
in all ages, by his Spirit and Word,
in divers ways of administration,
the whole will of God, in all things
concerning their edification and salvation.
Q. 44 How doth Christ execute the
office of a priest?
A. Christ executeth the office of a priest,
in his once offering himself a sacrifice without spot to God, to be reconciliation for the sins of his people; and in making continual intercession for them.
Q. 45 How doth Christ execute the
office of a king?
A. Christ executeth the office of a king, in
calling out of the world a people to himself, and giving them officers,
laws, and censures, by which he visibly governs them; in bestowing saving grace upon his elect, rewarding their obedience,
and correcting them for their sins,
preserving and supporting them under all their temptations and sufferings, restraining and overcoming all their enemies, and powerfully ordering all things for his own glory, and their good; and also in
taking vengeance on the rest, who know not God, and obey not the gospel.
Q. 46 What was the estate of
A. The estate of Christ's humiliation was
that low condition, wherein he for our sakes, emptying himself of his glory,
took upon him the form of a servant, in his conception and birth, life, death,
and after his death, until his resurrection.
Q. 47 How did Christ humble
himself in his conception and birth?
A. Christ humbled himself in his conception
and birth, in that, being from all eternity the Son of God, in the bosom of the
Father, he was pleased in the fulness of time to become the son of man, made of
a woman of low estate, and to be born of her; with divers circumstances of more
than ordinary abasement.
Q. 48 How did Christ humble
himself in his life?
A. Christ humbled himself in his life, by
subjecting himself to the law,
which he perfectly fulfilled;
and by conflicting with the indignities of the world, temptations of Satan,
and infirmities in his flesh, whether common to the nature of man, or
particularly accompanying that his low condition.
Q. 49 How did Christ humble
himself in his death?
A. Christ humbled himself in his death, in
that having been betrayed by Judas,
forsaken by his disciples,
scorned and rejected by the world,
condemned by Pilate, and tormented by his persecutors; having also conflicted with the terrors of death, and the powers of
darkness, felt and borne the weight of God's wrath, he laid down his life an offering for sin, enduring the painful, shameful, and cursed death of the cross.
Q. 50 Wherein consisted Christ's
humiliation after his death?
A. Christ's humiliation after his death
consisted in his being buried,
and continuing in the state of the dead, and under the power of death till the
third day; which hath been
otherwise expressed in these words, He descended into hell.
Q. 51 What was the estate of
A. The estate of Christs exaltation
comprehendeth his resurrection,
ascension, sitting at the
right hand of the Father, and his coming
again to judge the world.
Q. 52 How was Christ exalted in
A. Christ was exalted in his resurrection,
in that, not having seen corruption in death, (of which it was not possible for
him to be held,) and having the
very same body in which he suffered, with the essential properties thereof, (but without mortality, and other common infirmities belonging to this
life,) really united to his soul,
he rose again from the dead the third day by his own power; whereby he declared himself to be the Son of God, to have satisfied divine justice, to have vanquished death, and him that had the power of it, and to be Lord of quick and dead: all which he did as a public person, the head of his church,
for their justification, quickening in
grace, support against enemies,
and to assure them of their resurrection from the dead at the last day.
Q. 53 How was Christ exalted in
A. Christ was exalted in his ascension, in
that having after his resurrection often appeared unto and conversed with his
apostles, speaking to them of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God, and giving them commission to preach the gospel to all nations, forty days after his resurrection, he, in our nature, and as our head, triumphing over enemies,
visibly went up into the highest heavens, there to receive gifts for men, to raise up our affections thither, and to prepare a place for us,
where he himself is, and shall continue till his second coming at the end of
Q. 54 How is Christ exalted in
his sitting at the right hand of God?
A. Christ is exalted in his sitting at the
right hand of God, in that as God-man he is advanced to the highest favour with
God the Father, with all fulness
of joy, glory, and power over
all things in heaven and earth;
and does gather and defend his church, and subdue their enemies; furnisheth his
ministers and people with gifts and graces, and maketh intercession for them.
Q. 55 How doeth Christ make
A. Christ maketh intercession, by his
appearing in our nature continually before the Father in heaven, in the merit of his obedience and sacrifice on earth, declaring his will to have it applied to all believers; answering all accusations against them, and procuring for them quiet of conscience, notwithstanding daily
failings, access with
boldness to the throne of grace,
and acceptance of their persons
Q. 56 How is Christ to be exalted
in his coming again to judge the world?
A. Christ is to be exalted in his coming
again to judge the world, in that he, who was unjustly judged and condemned by
wicked men, shall come again
at the last day in great power,
and in the full manifestation of his own glory, and of his Fathers, with all
his holy angels, with a shout, with
the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God, to judge the world in righteousness.
Q. 57 What benefits hath Christ
procured by his mediation?
A. Christ, by his mediation, hath procured
redemption, with all other
benefits of the covenant of grace.
Q. 58 How do we come to be made
partakers of the benefits which Christ hath procured?
A. We are made partakers of the benefits
which Christ hath procured, by the application of them unto us, which is the work especially of God the Holy Ghost.
Q. 59 Who are made partakers of
redemption through Christ?
A. Redemption is certainly applied, and
effectually communicated, to all those for whom Christ hath purchased it; who are in time by the Holy Ghost enabled to believe in Christ according
to the gospel.
Q. 60 Can they who have never
heard the gospel, and so know not Jesus Christ, nor believe in him, be saved by
their living according to the light of nature?
A. They who, having never heard the gospel, know not Jesus Christ, and
believe not in him, cannot be saved,
be they never so diligent to frame their lives according to the light of
nature, or the laws of that religion which they profess; neither is there salvation in any other, but in Christ alone, who is the Savior only of his body the church.
Q. 61 Are all they saved who hear
the gospel, and live in the church?
A. All that hear the gospel, and live in the
visible church, are not saved; but they only who are true members of the church
Q. 62 What is the visible church?
A. The visible church is a society made up
of all such as in all ages and places of the world do profess the true
religion, and of their
Q. 63 What are the special
privileges of the visible church?
A. The visible church hath the privilege of
being under Gods special care and government; of being protected and preserved in all ages, notwithstanding the
opposition of all enemies;
and of enjoying the communion of saints, the ordinary means of salvation, and offers of grace by Christ to all the members of it in the ministry
of the gospel, testifying, that whosoever believes in him shall be saved, and excluding none that will come unto him.
Q. 64 What is the invisible
A. The invisible church is the whole number
of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ
Q. 65 What special benefits do
the members of the invisible church enjoy by Christ?
A. The members of the invisible church by
Christ enjoy union and communion with him in grace and glory.
Q. 66 What is that union which
the elect have with Christ?
A. The union which the elect have with
Christ is the work of Gods grace,
whereby they are spiritually and mystically, yet really and inseparably, joined
to Christ as their head and husband;
which is done in their effectual calling.
Q. 67 What is effectual calling?
A. Effectual calling is the work of Gods
almighty power and grace, whereby (out of
his free and special love to his elect, and from nothing in them moving him
thereunto) he doth, in his
accepted time, invite and draw them to Jesus Christ, by his Word and Spirit; savingly enlightening their minds, renewing and powerfully determining their wills, so as they (although in themselves dead in sin) are hereby made
willing and able freely to answer his call, and to accept and embrace the grace
offered and conveyed therein.
Q. 68 Are the elect only
A. All the elect, and they only, are
effectually called: although others
may be, and often are, outwardly called by the ministry of the Word, and have some common operations of the Spirit; who, for their wilful neglect and contempt of the grace offered to
them, being justly left in their unbelief, do never truly come to Jesus Christ.
Q. 69 What is the communion in
grace which the members of the invisible church have with Christ?
A. The communion in grace which the members
of the invisible church have with Christ, is their partaking of the virtue of
his mediation, in their justification,
and whatever else, in this life, manifests their union with him.
Q. 70 What is justification?
A. Justification is an act of Gods free
grace unto sinners, in which he
pardoneth all their sins, accepteth and accounteth their persons righteous in
his sight; not for any
thing wrought in them, or done by them,
but only for the perfect obedience and full satisfaction of Christ, by God
imputed to them, and received by
Q. 71 How is justification an act
of Gods free grace?
A. Although Christ, by his obedience and
death, did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to Gods justice in the
behalf of them that are justified;
yet in as much as God accepteth the satisfaction from a surety, which he might
have demanded of them, and did provide this surety, his own only Son, imputing his righteousness to them, and requiring nothing of them for their justification but faith, which also is his gift,
their justification is to them of free grace.
Q. 72 What is justifying faith?
A. Justifying faith is a saving grace, wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit and Word of God, whereby he,
being convinced of his sin and misery, and of the disability in himself and all
other creatures to recover him out of his lost condition, not only assenteth to the truth of the promise of the gospel, but receiveth and resteth upon Christ and his righteousness, therein
held forth, for pardon of sin,
and for the accepting and accounting of his person righteous in the sight of
God for salvation.
Q. 73 How doth faith justify a
sinner in the sight of God?
A. Faith justifies a sinner in the sight of
God, not because of those other graces which do always accompany it, or of good
works that are the fruits of it,
nor as if the grace of faith, or any act thereof, were imputed to him for his
justification; but only as it
is an instrument by which he receiveth and applieth Christ and his
Q. 74 What is adoption?
A. Adoption is an act of the free grace of
God, in and for his only Son Jesus Christ, whereby all those that are justified are received into the number of
his children, have his name
put upon them, the Spirit of
his Son given to them, are under his
fatherly care and dispensations,
admitted to all the liberties and privileges of the sons of God, made heirs of
all the promises, and fellow-heirs with Christ in glory.
Q. 75 What is sanctification?
A. Sanctification is a work of Gods grace,
whereby they whom God hath, before the foundation of the world, chosen to be
holy, are in time, through the powerful operation of his Spiritapplying the death and resurrection of Christ unto them, renewed in their whole man after the image of God; having the seeds of repentance unto life, and all other saving graces,
put into their hearts, and those graces
so stirred up, increased, and strengthened, as that they more and more die unto sin, and rise unto newness of life.
Q. 76 What is repentance unto
A. Repentance unto life is a saving grace, wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit and Word of God, whereby, out of
the sight and sense, not only of the danger, but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins, and upon the apprehension of Gods mercy in Christ to such as are
penitent, he so grieves
for and hates his sins,
as that he turns from them all to God,
purposing and endeavouring constantly to walk with him in all the ways of new
Q. 77 Wherein do justification
and sanctification differ?
A. Although sanctification be inseparably
joined with justification, yet they differ, in that God in justification imputeth the righteousness of Christ; in sanctification of his Spirit infuseth grace, and enableth to the
exercise thereof; in the former,
sin is pardoned; in the other, it
is subdued: the one doth
equally free all believers from the revenging wrath of God, and that perfectly
in this life, that they never fall into condemnation the other is neither equal in all, nor in this life perfect in any, but growing up to perfection.
Q. 78 Whence ariseth the
imperfection of sanctification in believers?
A. The imperfection of sanctification in believers
ariseth from the remnants of sin abiding in every part of them, and the
perpetual lustings of the flesh against the spirit; whereby they are often
foiled with temptations, and fall into many sins, are hindered in all their spiritual services, and their best works are imperfect and defiled in the sight of God.
Q. 79 May not true believers, by
reason of their imperfections, and the many temptations and sins they are
overtaken with, fall away from the state of grace?
A. True believers, by reason of the
unchangeable love of God, and his decree
and covenant to give them perseverance,
their inseparable union with Christ,
his continual intercession for them,
and the Spirit and seed of God abiding in them, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace, but are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation.
Q. 80 Can true believers be
infallibly assured that they are in the estate of grace, and that they shall
persevere therein unto salvation?
A. Such as truly believe in Christ, and
endeavour to walk in all good conscience before him, may, without extraordinary revelation, by faith grounded upon the
truth of Gods promises, and by the Spirit enabling them to discern in
themselves those graces to which the promises of life are made, and bearing witness with their spirits that they are the children of
God, be infallibly assured that they are in the estate of grace, and shall
persevere therein unto salvation.
Q. 81 Are all true believers at all
times assured of their present being in the estate of grace, and that they
shall be saved?
A. Assurance of grace and salvation not
being of the essence of faith,
true believers may wait long before they obtain it; and, after the enjoyment thereof, may have it weakened and
intermitted, through manifold distempers, sins, temptations, and desertions; yet they are never left without such a presence and support of the
Spirit of God as keeps them from sinking into utter despair.
Q. 82 What is the communion in
glory which the members of the invisible church have with Christ?
A. The communion in glory which the members
of the invisible church have with Christ, is in this life, immediately after death,
and at last perfected at the resurrection and day of judgment
Q. 83 What is the communion in
glory with Christ which the members of the invisible church enjoy in this life?
A. The members of the invisible church have
communicated to them in this life the firstfruits of glory with Christ, as they
are members of him their head, and so in him are interested in that glory which
he is fully possessed of; and, as an
earnest thereof, enjoy the sense of Gods love, peace of conscience, joy in the Holy Ghost, and hope of glory; as, on the contrary, sense of Gods revenging wrath, horror of
conscience, and a fearful expectation of judgment, are to the wicked the
beginning of their torments which they shall endure after death.
Q. 84 Shall all men die?
A. Death being threatened as the wages of sin, it is appointed unto all men once to die; for that all have sinned.
Q. 85 Death, being the wages of
sin, why are not the righteous delivered from death, seeing all their sins are
forgiven in Christ?
A. The righteous shall be delivered from death
itself at the last day, and even in death are delivered from the sting and
curse of it; so that,
although they die, yet it is out of Gods love, to free them perfectly from sin and misery, and to make them capable of further communion with Christ in glory,
which they then enter upon.
Q. 86 What is the communion in
glory with Christ, which the members of the invisible church enjoy immediately
A. The communion in glory with Christ, which
the members of the invisible church enjoy immediately after death is, in that
their souls are then made perfect in holiness, and received into the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies, which even in death continue united to Christ, and rest in their graves as in their beds, till at the last day they be again united to their souls. Whereas the souls of the wicked are at their death cast into hell,
where they remain in torments and utter darkness, and their bodies kept in
their graves, as in their prisons, till the resurrection and judgment of the
Q. 87 What are we to believe
concerning the resurrection?
A. We are to believe that at the last day
there shall be a general resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust: when they that are then found alive shall in a moment be changed; and
the selfsame bodies of the dead which were laid in the grave, being then again
united to their souls forever, shall be raised up by the power of Christ. The bodies of the just, by the Spirit of Christ, and by virtue of his
resurrection as their head, shall be raised in power, spiritual, incorruptible,
and made like to his glorious body;
and the bodies of the wicked shall be raised up in dishonour by him, as an
Q. 88 What shall immediately
follow after the resurrection?
A. Immediately after the resurrection shall
follow the general and final judgment of angels and men; the day and hour whereof no man knoweth, that all may watch and pray,
and be ever ready for the coming of the Lord.
Q. 89 What shall be done to the
wicked at the day of judgment?
A. At the day of judgment, the wicked shall
be set on Christs left hand,
and, upon clear evidence, and full conviction of their own consciences, shall have the fearful but just sentence of condemnation pronounced
against them; and thereupon
shall be cast out from the favourable presence of God, and the glorious
fellowship with Christ, his saints, and all his holy angels, into hell, to be
punished with unspeakable torments, both of body and soul, with the devil and
his angels forever.
Q. 90 What shall be done to the
righteous at the day of judgment?
A. At the day of judgment, the righteous,
being caught up to Christ in the clouds, shall be set on his right hand, and there openly acknowledged and
acquitted, shall join with
him in the judging of reprobate angels and men, and shall be received into heaven, where they shall be fully and forever freed from all sin and misery; filled with inconceivable joys, made perfectly holy and happy both in body and soul, in the company of
innumerable saints and holy angels,
but especially in the immediate vision and fruition of God the Father, of our
Lord Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, to all eternity. And this is the perfect and full communion, which the members of the
invisible church shall enjoy with Christ in glory, at the resurrection and day
Q. 91 What is the duty which God
requireth of man?
A. The duty which God requireth of man, is
obedience to his revealed will.
Q. 92 What did God at first
reveal unto man as the rule of his obedience?
A. The rule of obedience revealed to Adam in
the estate of innocence, and to all mankind in him, besides a special command
not to eat of the fruit of the tree knowledge of good and evil, was the moral
Q. 93 What is the moral law?
A. The moral law is the declaration of the
will of God to mankind, directing and binding every one to personal, perfect,
and perpetual conformity and obedience thereunto, in the frame and disposition
of the whole man, soul and body,
and in performance of all those duties of holiness and righteousness which he
oweth to God and man: promising life
upon the fulfilling, and threatening death upon the breach of it.
Q. 94 Is there any use of the
moral law to man since the fall?
A. Although no man, since the fall, can
attain to righteousness and life by the moral law: yet there is great use thereof, as well common to all men, as peculiar
either to the unregenerate, or the regenerate.
Q. 95 Of what use is the moral
law to all men?
A. The moral law is of use to all men, to
inform them of the holy nature and the will of God, and of their duty, binding them to walk accordingly; to convince them of their disability to keep it, and of the sinful
pollution of their nature, hearts, and lives: to humble them in the sense of their sin and misery, and thereby help them to a clearer sight of the need they have of
Christ, and of the perfection of his obedience.
Q. 96 What particular use is
there of the moral law to unregenerate men?
A. The moral law is of use to unregenerate
men, to awaken their consciences to flee from wrath to come, and to drive them to Christ;
or, upon their continuance in the estate and way of sin, to leave them
inexcusable, and under the
Q. 97 What special use is there
of the moral law to the regenerate?
A. Although they that are regenerate, and
believe in Christ, be delivered from the moral law as a covenant of works, so as thereby they are neither justified nor condemned; yet, besides the
general uses thereof common to them with all men, it is of special use, to show
them how much they are bound to Christ for his fulfilling it, and enduring the
curse thereof in their stead, and for their good; and thereby to provoke them to more thankfulness, and to express the same in their greater care to conform themselves
thereunto as the rule of their obedience.
Q. 98 Where is the moral law
A. The moral law is summarily comprehended
in the ten commandments, which were delivered by the voice of God upon Mount
Sinai, and written by him in two tables of stone; and are recorded in the twentieth chapter of Exodus. The four first
commandments containing our duty to God, and the other six our duty to man.
Q. 99 What rules are to be
observed for the right understanding of the ten commandments?
A. For the right understanding of the ten
commandments, these rules are to be observed:
1. That the law is perfect,
and bindeth everyone to full conformity in the whole man unto the righteousness
thereof, and unto entire obedience forever; so as to require the utmost
perfection of every duty, and to forbid the least degree of every sin.
2. That it is spiritual, and
so reacheth the understanding, will, affections, and all other powers of the
soul; as well as words, works, and gestures.
3. That one and the same
thing, in divers respects, is required or forbidden in several commandments.
4. That as, where a duty is
commanded, the contrary sin is forbidden; and, where a sin is forbidden, the contrary duty is commanded: so, where a promise is annexed, the contrary threatening is included; and, where a threatening is annexed, the contrary promise is included.
5. That what God forbids, is
at no time to be done; what he
commands, is always our duty;
and yet every particular duty is not to be done at all times. 6. That under one sin or duty, all of
the same kind are forbidden or commanded; together with all the causes, means,
occasions, and appearances thereof, and provocations thereunto.
7. That what is forbidden or commanded to ourselves, we are bound,
according to our places to endeavour that it may be avoided or performed by
others, according to the duty of their places. 8. That in what is commanded to others,
we are bound, according to our places and callings, to be helpful to them; and to take heed of partaking with others in what is forbidden them.
Q. 100 What special things are we
to consider in the ten commandments?
A. We are to consider in the ten
commandments, the preface, the substance of the commandments themselves, and
several reasons annexed to some of them, the more to enforce them.
Q. 101 What is the preface to the
A. The preface to the ten commandments is
contained in these words, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee
out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.Wherein God manifesteth his sovereignty, as being JEHOVAH, the eternal,
immutable, and almighty God; having his being in and of himself, and giving being to all his words and works: and that he is a
God in covenant, as with Israel of old, so with all his people; who, as he brought them out of their bondage in Egypt, so he
delivereth us from our spiritual thraldom; and that therefore we are bound to take him for our God alone, and to
keep all his commandments.
Q. 102 What is the sum of the four
commandments which contain our duty to God?
A. The sum of the four commandments
containing our duty to God is, to love the Lord our God with all our heart, and
with all our soul, and with all our strength, and with all our mind.
Q. 103 Which is the first
A. The first commandment is, Thou shall
have no other gods before me.
Q. 104 What are the duties required
in the first commandment?
A. The duties required in the first
commandment are, the knowing and acknowledging of God to be the only true God,
and our God; and to worship
and glorify him accordingly,
by thinking, meditating, remembering, highly
esteeming, honouring, adoring, choosing, loving, desiring, fearing of him; believing him; trusting hoping, delighting, rejoicing in
him; being zealous for him;
calling upon him, giving all praise and thanks, and yielding all obedience and submission to him with the whole man; being careful in all things to please him, and sorrowful when in any thing he is offended; and walking humbly with him.
Q. 105 What are the sins forbidden
in the first commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the first
commandment are, atheism, in denying or not having a God; idolatry, in having or worshipping more gods than one, or any with or
instead of the true God; the not having
and avouching him for God, and our God;
the omission or neglect of anything due to him, required in this commandment; ignorance, forgetfulness, misapprehensions,
false opinions, unworthy and
wicked thoughts of him; bold and curious
searching into his secrets;
all profaneness, hatred of God; self-love, self-seeking, and all other inordinate and immoderate setting of our mind, will, or
affections upon other things, and taking them off from him in whole or in part; vain credulity, unbelief, heresy, misbelief, distrust, despair, incorrigibleness,
and insensibleness under judgments,
hardness of heart, pride, presumption, carnal security, tempting of God; using unlawful
means, and trusting in lawful means;
carnal delights and joys; corrupt, blind,
and indiscreet zeal; lukewarmness, and deadness in the things of God; estranging ourselves, and apostatizing from God; praying, or giving any religious worship, to saints, angels, or any
other creatures; all compacts and
consulting with the devil,
and hearkening to his suggestions;
making men the lords of our faith and conscience; slighting and despising God and his commands; resisting and grieving of his Spirit, discontent and impatience at his dispensations, charging him foolishly
for the evils he inflicts on us;
and ascribing the praise of any good we either are, have or can do, to fortune, idols, ourselves, or any other creature.
Q. 106 What are we specially taught
by these words before me in the first commandment?
A. These words before me or before
my face, in the first commandment, teach us, that God, who seeth all things,
taketh special notice of, and is much displeased with, the sin of having any
other God: that so it may be an argument to dissuade from it, and to aggravate
it as a most impudent provocation:
as also to persuade us to do as in his sight, whatever we do in his service.
Q. 107 Which is the second
A. The second commandment is, Thou shalt
not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in
heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under
the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the
Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the
children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing
mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
Q. 108 What are the duties required
in the second commandment?
A. The duties required in the second
commandment are, the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such
religious worship and ordinances as God hath instituted in his Word; particularly prayer and thanksgiving in the name of Christ; the reading, preaching, and hearing of the Word; the administration and receiving of the sacraments; church government and discipline; the ministry and maintainance thereof; religious fasting;
swearing by the name of God;
and vowing unto him; as also the
disapproving, detesting, opposing all false worship; and, according to each ones place and calling, removing it, and all
monuments of idolatry.
Q. 109 What are the sins forbidden
in the second commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the second
commandment are, all devising,
counselling, commanding, using, and anywise
approving, any religious worship not instituted by God himself; tolerating a false religion; the making any representation of God, of
all or of any of the three persons, either inwardly in our mind, or outwardly
in any kind of image or likeness of any creature whatsoever; all worshipping of it,
or God in it or by it; the making of
any representation of feigned deities,
and all worship of them, or service belonging to them, all superstitious devices,
corrupting the worship of God,
adding to it, or taking from it,
whether invented and taken up of ourselves, or received by tradition from others, though under the title of antiquity, custom, devotion, good intent, or any other pretence whatsoever; simony; sacrilege; all neglect, contempt, hindering, and opposing the
worship and ordinances which God hath appointed.
Q. 110 What are the reasons annexed
to the second commandment, the more to enforce it?
A. The reasons annexed to the second
commandment, the more to enforce it, contained in these words, For I the
Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the
children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing
mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments; are, besides Gods sovereignty over us, and propriety in us, his fervent zeal for his own worship, and his revengeful indignation against all false worship, as being a
spiritual whoredom; accounting the
breakers of this commandment such as hate him, and threatening to punish them
unto divers generations; and esteeming
the observers of it such as love him and keep his commandments, and promising
mercy to them unto many generations..
Q. 111 Which is the third
A. The third commandment is, Thou shalt
not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him
guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
Q. 112 What is required in the
A. The third commandment requires, That the
name of God, his titles, attributes,
ordinances, the Word, sacraments, prayer, oaths, vows, lots, his works, and whatsoever else there is whereby he makes himself known, be holily
and reverently used in thought,
meditation, word, and writing; by an holy
profession, and answerable
conversation, to the glory of
God, and the good of ourselves,
Q. 113 What are the sins forbidden
in the third commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the third
commandment are, the not using of Gods name as is required; and the abuse of it in an ignorant, vain, irreverent,
profane, superstitious or wicked
mentioning or otherwise using his titles, attributes, ordinances, or works, by blasphemy, perjury; all sinful cursings,
oaths, vows, and lots; violating of our oaths and vows, if lawful; and fulfilling them, if of things unlawful; murmuring and quarrelling at,
curious prying into, and misapplying
of Gods decreesand providences; misinterpreting, misapplying, or any way perverting the Word, or any part of it; to profane jests,
curious or unprofitable questions, vain janglings, or the maintaining of false
doctrines; abusing it, the
creatures, or anything contained under the name of God, to charms, or sinful lusts and practices;
the maligning, scorning, reviling, or any wise
opposing of Gods truth, grace, and ways; making profession of religion in hypocrisy, or for sinister ends; being ashamed of it,
or a shame to it, by unconformable,
unwise, unfruitful, and offensive
walking, or backsliding from it..
Q. 114 What reasons are annexed to
the third commandment?
A. The reasons annexed to the third
commandment, in these words, The Lord thy God, and, For the Lord will
not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain, are, because he is the Lord and our God, therefore his name is not to
be profaned, or any way abused by us;
especially because he will be so far from acquitting and sparing the
transgressors of this commandment, as that he will not suffer them to escape
his righteous judgment; albeit many such
escape the censures and punishments of men.
Q. 115 Which is the fourth
A. The fourth commandment is, Remember
the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy
work; but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt
not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy
maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. For in
six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and
rested in the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath-day and
Q. 116 What is required in the
A. The fourth commandment requireth of all
men the sanctifying or keeping holy to God such set times as he hath appointed
in his Word, expressly one whole day in seven; which was the seventh from the
beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, and the first day of the
week ever since, and so to continue to the end of the world; which is the
Christian sabbath, and in the New
Testament called The Lords day.
Q. 117 How is the sabbath or the
Lords day to be sanctified?
A. The sabbath or Lords day is to be
sanctified by an holy resting all the day, not only from such works as are at all times sinful, but even from
such worldly employments and recreations as are on other days lawful; and making it our delight to spend the whole time (except so much of
it as is to be taken up in works of necessity and mercy) in the public and private exercises of Gods worship: and, to that end, we are to prepare our hearts, and with such
foresight, diligence, and moderation, to dispose and seasonably dispatch our
worldly business, that we may be the more free and fit for the duties of that
Q. 118 Why is the charge of keeping
the sabbath more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors?
A. The charge of keeping the sabbath is more
specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors, because they
are bound not only to keep it themselves, but to see that it be observed by all
those that are under their charge; and because they are prone ofttimes to
hinder them by employments of their own.
Q. 119 What are the sins forbidden
in the fourth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the fourth
commandment are, all omissions of the duties required, all careless, negligent, and unprofitable performing of them, and
being weary of them; all profaning
the day by idleness, and doing that which is in itself sinful; and by all needless works, words, and thoughts, about our worldly
employments and recreations.
Q. 120 What are the reasons annexed
to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it?
A. The reasons annexed to the fourth
commandment, the more to enforce it, are taken from the equity of it, God
allowing us six days of seven for our own affairs, and reserving but one for
himself in these words, Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: from Gods challenging a special propriety in that day, The
seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: from the example of God, who in six days made heaven and earth, the
sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: and from that
blessing which God put upon that day, not only in sanctifying it to be a day
for his service, but in ordaining it to be a means of blessing to us in our
sanctifying it; Wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed
Q. 121 Why is the word Remember set in the beginning of
the fourth commandment?
A. The word Remember is set in the
beginning of the fourth commandment,
partly, because of the great benefit of remembering it, we being thereby helped
in our preparation to keep it,
and, in keeping it, better to keep all the rest of the commandments, and to continue a thankful remembrance of the two great benefits of
creation and redemption, which contain a short abridgment of religion; and partly, because we are very ready to forget it, for that there is less light of nature for it, and yet it restraineth our natural liberty in things at other times
lawful; that it cometh but once in seven days, and many worldly businesses
come between, and too often take off our minds from thinking of it, either to
prepare for it, or to sanctify it;
and that Satan with his instruments labours much to blot out the glory, and
even the memory of it, to bring in all irreligion and impiety.
Q. 122 What is the sum of the six
commandments which contain our duty to man?
A. The sum of the six commandments which
contain our duty to man, is, to love our neighbour as ourselves, and to do to others what we would have them to do to us.
Q. 123 Which is the fifth
A. The fifth commandment is, Honour thy
father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord
thy God giveth thee.
Q. 124 Who are meant by father and mother in the fifth commandment?
A. By father and mother,
in the fifth commandment, are meant, not only natural parents, but all superiors in age
and gifts; and especially
such as, by Gods ordinance, are over us in place of authority, whether in
family, church, or commonwealth
Q. 125 Why are superiors styled father and mother?
A. Superiors are styled father and mother,
both to teach them in all duties toward their inferiors, like natural parents,
to express love and tenderness to them, according to their several relations; and to work inferiors to a greater willingness and cheerfulness in
performing their duties to their superiors, as to their parents.
Q. 126 What is the general scope of
the fifth commandment?
A. The general scope of the fifth
commandment is, the performance of those duties which we mutually owe in our
several relations, as inferiors, superiors, or equals.
Q. 127 What is the honour that
inferiors owe to their superiors?
A. The honour which inferiors owe to their
superiors is, all due reverence in heart, word, and behaviour; prayer and thanksgiving for them; imitation of their virtues and graces; willing obedience to their lawful commands and counsels; due submission to their corrections; fidelity to, defence, and maintenance of their persons and authority, according to their
several ranks, and the nature of their places; bearing with their infirmities, and covering them in love, that so they may be an honour to them and to their government.
Q. 128 What are the sins of
inferiors against their superiors?
A. The sins of inferiors against their
superiors are, all neglect of the duties required toward them; envying at, contempt of, and rebellion against, their
personsand places, in their lawful
counsels, commands, and
corrections; cursing, mocking and all such refractory and scandalous carriage, as proves a shame and
dishonour to them and their government.
Q. 129 What is required of
superiors towards their inferiors?
A. It is required of superiors, according to
that power they receive from God, and that relation wherein they stand, to
love, pray for, and bless their
inferiors; to instruct, counsel, and admonish them;
countenancing, commending, and rewarding such as do well;
and discountenancing, reproving, and
chastising such as do ill;
protecting, and providing
for them all things necessary for soul
and body: and by grave,
wise, holy, and exemplary carriage, to procure glory to God, honour to themselves,
and so to preserve that authority which God hath put upon them.
Q. 130 What are the sins of
A. The sins of superiors are, besides the
neglect of the duties required of them,
and inordinate seeking of themselves,
their own glory, ease, profit, or
things unlawful, or not in the
power of inferiors to perform;
counseling, encouraging, or favouring them in that which is evil; dissuading, discouraging, or discountenancing them in that which is
good; correcting them unduly;
careless exposing, or leaving them to wrong, temptation, and danger; provoking them to wrath;
or any way dishonouring themselves, or lessening their authority, by an unjust,
indiscreet, rigorous, or remiss behaviour.
Q. 131 What are the duties of
A. The duties of equals are, to regard the
dignity and worth of each other,
in giving honour to go one before another; and to rejoice in each others gifts and advancement, as their own.
Q. 132 What are the sins of equals?
A. The sins of equals are, besides the
neglect of the duties required,
the undervaluing of the worth,
envying the gifts, grieving at the
advancement of prosperity one of another; and usurping pre-eminence one over another.
Q. 133 What is the reason annexed
to the fifth commandment, the more to enforce it?
A. The reason annexed to the fifth
commandment, in these words, That thy days may be long upon the land which
the Lord thy God giveth thee, is an express
promise of long life and prosperity, as far as it shall serve for Gods glory
and their own good, to all such as keep this commandment.
Q. 134 Which is the sixth
A. The sixth commandment is, Thou shalt
Q. 135 What are the duties required
in the sixth commandment?
A. The duties required in the sixth
commandment are all careful studies, and lawful endeavors, to preserve the life
of ourselves and others by resisting all thoughts and purposes, subduing all passions,
and avoiding all occasions,
temptations, and practices,
which tend to the unjust taking away the life of any; by just defence thereof against violence, patient bearing of the hand of God, quietness of mind,
cheerfulness of spirit; a sober use of
meat, drink, physic, sleep, labour, and recreations; by charitable
thoughts, love, compassion, meekness,
gentleness, kindness; peaceable, mild and courteous speeches and behaviour; forbearance, readiness to be reconciled, patient bearing and forgiving
of injuries, and requiting good for evil; comforting and succouring the distressed and protecting and defending
Q. 136 What are the sins forbidden
in the sixth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the sixth
commandment are, all taking away the life of ourselves, or of others, except in case
of public justice, lawful war, or necessary defence;
the neglecting or withdrawing the lawful and necessary means of preservation of
life; sinful anger, hatred, envy, desire of
revenge; all excessive passions,
distracting cares; immoderate use
of meat, drink, labor, and recreations; provoking words, oppression, quarreling, striking, wounding,
and whatsoever else tends to the destruction of the life of any.
Q. 137 Which is the seventh
A. The seventh commandment is, Thou
shalt not commit adultery.
Q. 138 What are the duties required
in the seventh commandment?
A. The duties required in the seventh
commandment are, chastity in body, mind, affections, words, and behavior; and the preservation of it in ourselves and others; watchfulness over the eyes and all the senses; temperance, keeping of
chaste company, modesty in
apparel; marriage by those that have not the gift of continency, conjugal love, and
cohabitation; diligent labor
in our callings; shunning all
occasions of uncleanness, and resisting temptations thereunto.
Q. 139 What are the sins forbidden
in the seventh commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the seventh
commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required, are, adultery, fornication,
rape, incest, sodomy, and all
unnatural lusts; all unclean
imaginations, thoughts, purposes, and affections; all corrupt or filthy communications, or listening thereunto; wanton looks, impudent or
light behaviour, immodest apparel;
prohibiting of lawful, and dispensing
with unlawful marriages; allowing,
tolerating, keeping of stews, and resorting to them; entangling vows of single life, undue delay of marriage,
having more wives or husbands than one at the same time; unjust divorce, or desertion; idleness, gluttony, drunkenness, unchaste company;
lascivious songs, books, pictures, dancings, stage plays; and all other provocations to, or acts of uncleanness, either in
ourselves or others.
Q. 140 Which is the eighth
A. The eighth commandment is, Thou shalt
Q. 141 What are the duties required
in the eighth commandment?
A. The duties required in the eighth
commandment are, truth, faithfulness, and justice in contracts and commerce
between man and man; rendering to
everyone his due; restitution of goods unlawfully detained from the right
owners thereof; giving and
lending freely, according to our abilities, and the necessities of others; moderation of our judgments, wills, and affections concerning worldly
goods; a provident care and study to get, keep, use, and dispose these things which are necessary and convenient
for the sustentation of our nature, and suitable to our condition; a lawful calling,
and diligence in it; frugality; avoiding unnecessary lawsuits,.
and suretiship, or other like engagements; and an endeavor, by all just and lawful means, to procure, preserve,
and further the wealth and outward estate of others, as well as our own.
Q. 142 What are the sins forbidden
in the eighth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the eighth
commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required,are, theft, robbery, man-stealing, and receiving
any thing that is stolen; fraudulent
dealing, false weights and measures,
removing landmarks, injustice and
unfaithfulness in contracts between man and man, or in matters of trust;
oppression, extortion, usury, bribery, vexatious lawsuits,
unjust inclosures and depopulations
ingrossing commodities to enhance the price; unlawful callings,
and all other unjust or sinful ways of taking or withholding from our neighbour
what belongs to him, or of enriching ourselves; covetousness; inordinate
prizing and affecting worldly goods;
distrustful and distracting cares and studies in getting, keeping, and using
them; envying at the prosperity of others; as likewise idleness,
prodigality, wasteful gaming; and all other ways whereby we do unduly prejudice
our own outward estate, and defrauding
ourselves of the due use and comfort of that estate which God hath given us.
Q. 143 Which is the ninth
A. The ninth commandment is, Thou shalt
not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
Q. 144 What are the duties required
in the ninth commandment?
A. The duties required in the ninth commandment
are, the preserving and promoting of truth between man and man, and the good name of our neighbour, as well as our own; appearing and standing for the truth; and from the heart,
sincerely, freely, clearly, and fully, speaking the truth, and only the truth, in matters of judgment and
justice, and in all other things whatsoever; a charitable esteem of our neighbours; loving, desiring, and rejoicing in their good name; sorrowing for, and covering of
their infirmities; freely
acknowledging of their gifts and graces, defending their innocency; a
ready receiving of a good report,
and unwillingness to admit of an evil report, concerning them; discouraging tale-bearers, flatterers, and slanderers; love and care of our own good name, and defending it when need
requireth; keeping of
lawful promises; studying and
practicing of whatsoever things are true, honest, lovely, and of good report.
Q. 145 What are the sins forbidden
in the ninth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the ninth
commandment are, all prejudicing the truth, and the good name of our
neighbours, as well as our own,
especially in public judicature;
giving false evidence, suborning false
witnesses, wittingly appearing
and pleading for an evil cause, outfacing and overbearing the truth; passing unjust sentence,
calling evil good, and good evil; rewarding the wicked according to the work of
the righteous, and the righteous according to the work of the wicked; forgery, concealing the
truth, undue silence in a just cause,
and holding our peace when iniquity calleth for either a reproof from
ourselves, or complaint to
others; speaking the truth unseasonably, or maliciously to a wrong end, or
perverting it to a wrong meaning,
or in doubtful and equivocal expressions, to the prejudice of truth or justice; speaking untruth,
lying, slandering, backbiting, detracting, tale bearing,
whispering, scoffing, reviling, rash, harsh, and partial
intentions, words, and actions;
boasting; thinking or
speaking too highly or too meanly of ourselves or others; denying the gifts and graces of God; aggravating smaller faults;
hiding, excusing, or extenuating of sins, when called to a free confession; unnecessary discovering of infirmities; raising false rumors,
receiving and countenancing evil reports, and stopping our ears against just defense; evil suspicion; envying or
grieving at the deserved credit of any,
endeavoring or desiring to impair it,
rejoicing in their disgrace and infamy;
scornful contempt, fond admiration; breach of lawful promises;
neglecting such things as are of good report, and practicing, or not avoiding ourselves, or not hindering what we
can in others, such things as procure an ill name.
Q. 146 Which is the tenth
A. The tenth commandment is, Thou shalt
not covet thy neighbours house, thou shall not covet they neighbours wife,
nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any
thing that is thy neighbours.
Q. 147 What are the duties required
in the tenth commandment?
A. The duties required in the tenth
commandment are, such a full contentment with our own condition, and such a charitable frame of the whole soul toward our neighbour, as
that all our inward motions and affections touching him, tend unto, and further
all that good which is his.
Q. 148 What are the sins forbidden
in the tenth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the tenth
commandment are, discontentment with our own estate; envying and grieving at
the good of our neighbour,
together with all inordinate motions and affections to anything that is his.
Q. 149 Is any man able perfectly to
keep the commandments of God?
A. No man is able, either of himself, or by any grace received in this life, perfectly to keep the
commandments of God; but doth daily
break them in thought, word, and deed.
Q. 150 Are all transgressions of
the law of God equally heinous in themselves, and in the sight of God?
A. All transgressions of the law of God are
not equally heinous; but some sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations,
are more heinous in the sight of God than others.
Q. 151 What are those aggravations
that make some sins more heinous than others?
receive their aggravations,
1. From the persons offending if they be of riper age,
greater experience or grace,
eminent for profession, gifts, place, office, guides to others,
and whose example is likely to be followed by others.
2. From the parties offended: if immediately against God,
his attributes, and worship; against Christ, and his grace;
the Holy Spirit, his witness, and workingsagainst
superiors, men of eminency,
and such as we stand especially related and engaged unto; against any of the saints,
particularly weak brethren,
the souls of them, or any other,
and the common good of all or many.
3. From the nature and quality of the
offense: if it be against the express letter of the law, break many commandments, contain in it many sins: if not only conceived in the heart, but breaks forth in words and
actions, scandalize others,
and admit of no reparation:
if against means, mercies, judgments, light of nature, conviction of conscience,
public or private admonition,
censures of the church, civil punishments; and our prayers, purposes, promises, vows, covenants, and engagements to God or men:
if done deliberately, wilfully, presumptuously, impudently, boastingly, maliciously, frequently, obstinately, with delight, continuance, or relapsing after repentance.
4. From circumstances of time and place: if on the Lords
day, or other times of divine worship; or immediately before
or after these, or other helps
to prevent or remedy such miscarriages;
if in public, or in the presence of others, who are thereby likely to be
provoked or defiled.
Q. 152 What doth every sin deserve
at the hands of God?
A. Every sin, even the least, being against
the sovereignty, goodness, and holiness of God,
and against his righteous law,
deserveth his wrath and curse,
both in this life, and that which
is to come; and cannot be
expiated but by the blood of Christ.
Q. 153 What doth God require of us,
that we may escape his wrath and curse due to us by reason of the transgression
of the law?
A. That we may escape the wrath and curse of
God due to us by reason of the transgression of the law, he requireth of us
repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ, and the diligent use of the outward means whereby Christ communicates
to us the benefits of his mediation.
Q. 154 What are the outward means
whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation?
A. The outward and ordinary means whereby
Christ communicates to his church the benefits of his mediation, are all his
ordinances; especially the Word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made
effectual to the elect for their salvation.
Q. 155 How is the Word made
effectual to salvation?
A. The Spirit of God maketh the reading, but
especially the preaching of the Word, an effectual means of enlightening, convincing, and humbling sinners; of driving them out of themselves, and drawing them unto Christ; of conforming them to his image, and subduing them to his will;
of strengthening them against temptations and corruptions of building them up in grace,
and establishing their hearts in holiness and comfort through faith unto
Q. 156 Is the Word of God to be
read by all?
A. Although all are not to be permitted to
read the Word publicly to the congregation, yet all sorts of people are bound to read it apart by themselves, and with their families:
to which end, the holy scriptures are to be translated out of the original into
Q. 157 How is the Word of God to be
A. The holy Scriptures are to be read with
an high and reverent esteem of them;
with a firm persuasion that they are the very Word of God, and that he only can enable us to understand them; with desire to know, believe, and obey the will of God revealed in
them; with diligence, and attention to the matter and scope of them; with meditation, application, self-denial, and prayer.
Q. 158 By whom is the Word of God
to be preached?
A. The Word of God is to be preached only by
such as are sufficiently gifted,
and also duly approved and called to that office.
Q. 159 How is the Word of God to be
preached by those that are called thereunto?
A. They that are called to labour in the
ministry of the Word, are to preach sound doctrine diligently, in season and
out of season; plainly, not in the enticing words of mans wisdom, but in demonstration of the
Spirit, and of power; faithfully, making known the whole counsel of God; wisely, applying
themselves to the necessities and capacities of the hearers; zealously, with fervent
love to God and the souls
of his people; sincerely, aiming at his glory,
and their conversion, edification, and salvation.
Q. 160 What is required of those
that hear the Word preached?
A. It is required of those that hear the
Word preached, that they attend upon it with diligence, preparation, and prayer; examine what they hear by the Scriptures; receive the truth with faith,
love, meekness, and readiness of mind,
as the Word of God; meditate, and confer of it;
hide it in their hearts, and bring forth
the fruit of it in their lives
Q. 161 How do the sacraments become
effectual means of salvation?
A. The sacraments become effectual means of
salvation, not by any power in themselves, or any virtue derived from the piety
or intention of him by whom they are administered, but only by the working of
the Holy Ghost, and the blessing of Christ, by whom they are instituted
Q. 162 What is a sacrament?
A. A sacrament is an holy ordinance
instituted by Christ in his church,
to signify, seal, and exhibit
unto those that are within the covenant of grace, the benefits of his mediation;
to strengthen and increase their faith, and all other graces; to oblige them to obedience;
to testify and cherish their love and communion one with another; and to distinguish them from those that are without.
Q. 163 What are the parts of a
A. The parts of the sacrament are two; the
one an outward and sensible sign, used according to Christs own appointment;
the other an inward and spiritual grace thereby signified.
Q. 164 How many sacraments hath
Christ instituted in his church under the New Testament?
A. Under the New Testament Christ hath
instituted in his church only two sacraments, baptism and the Lords supper.
Q. 165 What is baptism?
A. Baptism is a sacrament of the New
Testament, wherein Christ hath ordained the washing with water in the name of
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, to be a sign and seal of ingrafting into himself, of remission of sins by his blood, and regeneration by his Spirit; of adoption, and resurrection
unto everlasting life; and whereby the
parties baptized are solemnly admitted into the visible church, and enter into an open and professed engagement to be wholly and only
Q. 166 Unto whom is baptism to be
A. Baptism is not to be administered to any
that are out of the visible church, and so strangers from the covenant of
promise, till they profess their faith in Christ, and obedience to him, but infants descending from parents, either both, or but one of them,
professing faith in Christ, and obedience to him, are in that respect within
the covenant, and to be baptized.
Q. 167 How is our baptism to be
improved by us?
A. The needful but much neglected duty of
improving our baptism, is to be performed by us all our life long, especially
in the time of temptation, and when we are present at the administration of it
to others; by serious and
thankful consideration of the nature of it, and of the ends for which Christ
instituted it, the privileges and benefits conferred and sealed thereby, and
our solemn vow made therein;
by being humbled for our sinful defilement, our falling short of, and walking
contrary to, the grace of baptism, and our engagements; by growing up to assurance of pardon of sin, and of all other
blessings sealed to us in that sacrament; by drawing strength from the death and resurrection of Christ, into
whom we are baptized, for the mortifying of sin, and quickening of grace; and by endeavoring to live by faith, to have our conversation in holiness and righteousness, as those that have therein given up their names to Christ; and to walk in brotherly love, as being baptized by the same Spirit
into one body.
Q. 168 What is the Lords supper?
A. The Lords supper is a sacrament of the
New Testament, wherein, by
giving and receiving bread and wine according to the appointment of Jesus
Christ, his death is showed forth; and they that worthily communicate feed upon
his body and blood, to their spiritual nourishment and growth in grace; have their union and communion with him confirmed; testify and renew their thankfulness, and engagement to God,
and their mutual love and fellowship each with the other, as members of the
same mystical body.
Q. 169 How hath Christ appointed
bread and wine to be given and received in the sacrament of the Lords supper?
A. Christ hath appointed the ministers of
his Word, in the administration of this sacrament of the Lords supper, to set
apart the bread and wine from common use, by the word of institution,
thanksgiving, and prayer; to take and break the bread, and to give both the
bread and the wine to the communicants: who are, by the same appointment, to
take and eat the bread, and to drink the wine, in thankful remembrance that the
body of Christ was broken and given, and his blood shed, for them.
Q. 170 How do they that worthily
communicate in the Lords supper feed upon the body and blood of Christ
A. As the body and blood of Christ are not
corporally or carnally present in, with, or under the bread and wine in the
Lords supper, and yet are
spiritually present to the faith of the receiver, no less truly and really than
the elements themselves are to their outward senses; so they that worthily communicate in the sacrament of the Lords
supper, do therein feed upon the body and blood of Christ, not after a corporal
and carnal, but in a spiritual manner; yet truly and really, while by faith they receive and apply unto themselves Christ
crucified, and all the benefits of his death.
Q. 171 How are they that receive
the sacrament of the Lords supper to prepare themselves before they come unto
A. They that receive the sacrament of the
Lords supper are, before they come, to prepare themselves thereunto, by
examining themselves of their being
in Christ, of their sins
and wants; of the truth
and measure of their knowledge,
faith, repentance; love to God and the brethren,
charity to all men, forgiving those
that have done them wrong;
of their desires after Christ,
and of their new obedience;
and by renewing the exercise of these graces, by serious meditation,
and fervent prayer.
Q. 172 May one who doubteth of his
being in Christ, or of his due preparation, come to the Lords supper?
A. One who doubteth of his being in Christ,
or of his due preparation to the sacrament of the Lords supper, may have true
interest in Christ, though he be not yet assured thereof; and in Gods account hath it, if he be duly affected with the
apprehension of the want of it,
and unfeignedly desires to be found in Christ, and to depart from iniquity:
in which case (because promises are made, and this sacrament is appointed, for
the relief even of weak and doubting Christians he is to bewail his unbelief,
and labor to have his doubts resolved;
and, so doing, he may and ought to come to the Lords supper, that he may be
Q. 173 May any who profess the
faith, and desire to come to the Lords supper, be kept from it?
A. Such as are found to be ignorant or
scandalous, notwithstanding their profession of the faith, and desire to come
to the Lords supper, may and ought to be kept from that sacrament, by the
power which Christ hath left in his church, until they receive instruction, and manifest their reformation.
Q. 174 What is required of them
that receive the sacrament of the Lords supper in the time of the
administration of it?
A. It is required of them that receive the
sacrament of the Lords supper, that, during the time of the administration of
it, with all holy reverence and attention they wait upon God in that ordinance, diligently observe the sacramental elements and actions, heedfully discern the Lords body, and affectionately meditate on his death and sufferings, and thereby stir up themselves to a vigorous exercise of their graces; in judging themselves,
and sorrowing for sin; in earnest
hungering and thirsting after Christ,
feeding on him by faith, receiving of
his fullness, trusting in his
merits, rejoicing in
his love, giving thanks
for his grace; in renewing of
their covenant with God, and love to all
Q 175 What is the duty of
Christians, after they have received the sacrament of the Lords supper?
A. The duty of Christians, after they
have received the sacrament of the Lords supper, is seriously to consider how they have behaved themselves therein, and with what success; if they find quickening and comfort, to bless God for it, beg the continuance of it,
watch against relapses, fulfill their
vows, and encourage
themselves to a frequent attendance on that ordinance: but if they find no present benefit, more exactly to review their
preparation to, and carriage at, the sacrament; in both which, if they can approve themselves to God and their own
consciences, they are to wait for the fruit of it in due time: but, if they see they have failed in either, they are to be humbled, and to attend upon it afterwards with more care and diligence.
Q. 176 Wherein do the sacraments of
baptism and the Lords supper agree?
A. The sacraments of baptism and the Lords
supper agree, in that the author of both is God; the spiritual part of both is Christ and his benefits; both are seals of the same covenant, are to be dispensed by ministers of the gospel, and by none other; and to be continued in the church of Christ until his second coming.
Q. 177 Wherein do the sacraments of
baptism and the Lords supper differ?
A. The sacraments of baptism and the Lords
supper differ, in that baptism is to be administered but once, with water, to
be a sign and seal of our regeneration and ingrafting into Christ, and that even to infants;
whereas the Lords supper is to be administered often, in the elements of bread
and wine, to represent and exhibit Christ as spiritual nourishment to the soul, and to confirm our continuance and growth in him, and that only to such as are of years and ability to examine themselves.
Q. 178 What is prayer?
A. Prayer is an offering up of our desires
unto God, in the name of
Christ, by the help of
his Spirit; with confession
of our sins, and thankful
acknowledgment of his mercies.
Q. 179 Are we to pray unto God
A. God only being able to search the hearts, hear the requests,
pardon the sins, and fulfill the
desires of all; and only to be
believed in, and worshipped
with religious worship; prayer, which
is a special part thereof,
is to be made by all to him alone,
and to none other.
Q. 180 What is it to pray in the
name of Christ?
A. To pray in the name of Christ is, in
obedience to his command, and in confidence on his promises, to ask mercy for
his sake; not by bare
mentioning of his name, but by drawing
our encouragement to pray, and our boldness, strength, and hope of acceptance
in prayer, from Christ and his mediation.
Q. 181 Why are we to pray in the
name of Christ?
A. The sinfulness of man, and his distance
from God by reason thereof, being so great, as that we can have no access into
his presence without a mediator;
and there being none in heaven or earth appointed to, or fit for, that glorious
work but Christ alone, we are to pray
in no other name but his only.
Q. 182 How doth the Spirit help us
A. We not knowing what to pray for as we
ought, the Spirit helpeth our infirmities, by enabling us to understand both
for whom, and what, and how prayer is to be made; and by working and quickening
in our hearts (although not in all persons, nor at all times, in the same
measure) those apprehensions, affections, and graces which are requisite for
the right performance of that duty.
Q. 183 For whom are we to pray?
A. We are to pray for the whole church of Christ upon earth; for
magistrates, and ministers; for ourselves, our brethren, yea, our enemies;
and for all sorts of men living,
or that shall live hereafter;
but not for the dead, nor for those
that are known to have sinned the sin unto death.
Q. 184 For what things are we to
A. We are to pray for all things tending to
the glory of God, the welfare of
the church, our ownor others, good; but not for
anything that is unlawful.
Q. 185 How are we to pray?
A. We are to pray with an awful apprehension
of the majesty of God, and deep sense
of our own unworthiness, necessities, and sins; with penitent, thankful, and enlarged
understanding, faith, sincerity, fervency, love, and
perseverance, waiting upon
him, with humble
submission to his will.
Q. 186 What rule hath God given for
our direction in the duty of prayer?
A. The whole Word of God is of use to direct
us in the duty of prayer; but the special
rule of direction is that form of prayer which our Savior Christ taught his
disciples, commonly called The Lords Prayer.
Q. 187 How is the Lords Prayer to
A. The Lords Prayer is not only for
direction, as a pattern, according to which we are to make other prayers; but
may also be used as a prayer, so that it be done with understanding, faith,
reverence, and other graces necessary to the right performance of the duty of
Q. 188 Of how many parts doth the
Lords Prayer consist?
A. The Lords Prayer consists of three
parts; a preface, petitions, and a conclusion.
Q. 189 What doth the preface of the
Lords Prayer teach us?
A. The preface of the Lords Prayer
(contained in these words, Our Father which art in heaven, ) teacheth us, when we pray, to draw near to God with confidence of his
fatherly goodness, and our interest therein; with reverence, and all other childlike dispositions, heavenly affections,
and due apprehensions of his sovereign power, majesty, and gracious
condescension: as also, to
pray with and for others.
Q. 190 What do we pray for in the
A. In the first petition, (which is, Hallowed
by thy name, ) acknowledging
the utter inability and indisposition that is in ourselves and all men to honor
God aright, we pray, that
God would by his grace enable and incline us and others to know, to
acknowledge, and highly to esteem him,
his titles, attributes, ordinances, Word,
works, and whatsoever he is pleased to make himself known by; and to glorify him in thought, word, and deed: that he would
prevent and remove atheism,
ignorance, idolatry, profaneness, and whatsoever
is dishonorable to him; and, by his
over-ruling providence, direct and dispose of all things to his own glory.
Q. 191 What do we pray for in the
A. In the second petition, (which is, Thy
kingdom come, ) acknowledging
ourselves and all mankind to be by nature under the dominion of sin and Satan, we pray, that the kingdom of sin and Satan may be destroyed, the gospel propagated throughout the world, the Jews called, the fullness of
the Gentiles brought in; the church
furnished with all gospel-officers and ordinances, purged from corruption,
countenanced and maintained by the civil magistrate: that the ordinances of Christ may be purely dispensed, and made
effectual to the converting of those that are yet in their sins, and the
confirming, comforting, and building up of those that are already converted: that Christ would rule in our hearts here, and hasten the time of his second coming, and our reigning with him
forever: and that he
would be pleased so to exercise the kingdom of his power in all the world, as
may best conduce to these ends.
Q. 192 What do we pray for in the
A. In the third petition, (which is, Thy
will be done in earth as it is in heaven, ) acknowledging, that by nature we and all men are not only utterly
unable and unwilling to know and do the will of God, but prone to rebel against his Word, to repine and murmur against his providence, and wholly inclined to do the will of the flesh, and of the devil: we pray, that God would by his Spirit take away from ourselves and
others all blindness, weakness, indisposedness, and
perverseness of heart; and by his
grace make us able and willing to know, do, and submit to his will in all
things, with the like
humility, cheerfulness, faithfulness, diligence, zeal, sincerity, and constancy, as the angels
do in heaven.
Q. 193 What do we pray for in the
A. In the fourth petition, (which is, Give
us this day our daily bread, ) acknowledging,
that in Adam, and by our own sin, we have forfeited our right to all the
outward blessings of this life, and deserve to be wholly deprived of them by
God, and to have them cursed to us in the use of them; and that neither they of themselves are able to sustain us, nor we to merit, or by our own
industry to procure them; but prone to
desire, get, and use them unlawfully:
we pray for ourselves and others, that both they and we, waiting upon the
providence of God from day to day in the use of lawful means, may, of his free
gift, and as to his fatherly wisdom shall seem best, enjoy a competent portion
of them; and have the
same continued and blessed unto us in our holy and comfortable use of them, and contentment in them;
and be kept from all things that are contrary to our temporal support and comfort.
Q. 194 What do we pray for in the
A. In the fifth petition, (which is, Forgive
us our debts, as we forgive our debtors, ) acknowledging, that we and all others are guilty both of original and
actual sin, and thereby become debtors to the justice of God; and that neither
we, nor any other creature, can make the least satisfaction for that debt: we pray for ourselves and others, that God of his free grace would,
through the obedience and satisfaction of Christ, apprehended and applied by
faith, acquit us both from the guilt and punishment of sin, accept us in his Beloved;
continue his favour and grace to us,
pardon our daily failings,
and fill us with peace and joy, in giving us daily more and more assurance of
forgiveness; which we are
the rather emboldened to ask, and encouraged to expect, when we have this
testimony in ourselves, that we from the heart forgive others their offenses.
Q. 195 What do we pray for in the
A. In the sixth petition, (which is, And
lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil, ) acknowledging, that the most wise, righteous, and gracious God, for
divers holy and just ends, may so order things, that we may be assaulted,
foiled, and for a time led captive by temptations; that Satan, the world, and the flesh, are ready powerfully to draw us aside, and ensnare us; and that we, even after the pardon of our sins, by reason of our
corruption, weakness, and
want of watchfulness, are not only
subject to be tempted, and forward to expose ourselves unto temptations, but also of ourselves unable and unwilling to resist them, to recover
out of them, and to improve them;
and worthy to be left under the power of them: we pray, that God would so overrule the world and all in it, subdue the flesh,
and restrain Satan, order all
things, bestow and
bless all means of grace, and quicken us
to watchfulness in the use of them, that we and all his people may by his
providence be kept from being tempted to sin; or, if tempted, that by his Spirit we may be powerfully supported and
enabled to stand in the hour of temptation; or when fallen, raised again and recovered out of it, and have a sanctified use and improvement thereof: that our sanctification and salvation may be perfected, Satan trodden under our feet,
and we fully freed from sin, temptation, and all evil, forever.
Q. 196 What doth the conclusion of
the Lords Prayer teach us?
A. The conclusion of the Lords Prayer,
(which is, For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for
ever. Amen. ) teacheth us to
enforce our petitions with arguments,
which are to be taken, not from any worthiness in ourselves, or in any other
creature, but from God; and with our prayers
to join praises, ascribing to
God alone eternal sovereignty, omnipotency, and glorious excellency; in regard whereof, as he is able and willing to help us, so we by faith are emboldened to plead with him that he would, and quietly to rely upon him, that he will fulfil our requests. And, to testify this our desire and assurance, we say, Amen.